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web运维:Nginx 0.8.x+PHP 5.2.13(FastCGI)+MYSQL搭建高性能Web服务器

发表于3年前 | 作者: seay | 分类: 安全运营 | 孵化于:2014年07月14日 | 文章热度:9,101 次 全屏阅读

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    博客写了两年多时间,用的WordPress,由于WordPress本身就臃肿,另外为了更好的优化博客的体验,我还装了十几款插件,以及绚丽的博客主题,言外意思是图片和JS等资源过多,这些东西使得我的博客又臃肿了一两倍,这段时间感觉到访问速度明显下降,上服务器看看才知道内存跑满了,CPU也基本跑满(原来用的apache),访问量一大mysql服务立马死掉。想过换到emlog,但是由于没有WordPress到emlog的转换程序,自己研究了下发现要搞定时间成本太大。看来目前最好的做法就是优化webserver以及mysql了,最直接的是要把内存和CPU使用率降下来,所以我选择用nginx+php+mysql的解决方案,主要思路是做各种cache来减少nginx、mysql以及网络资源的压力,以及优化webserver跟mysql参数来分配合理的服务器资源,让这些服务都能稳定正常的运行,这类的文章网上已经有很多,我就不再细写,找了一个张宴的文章,根据我的小VPS情况做了一些参数优化,加入了一些在安装过程中的可能会出现的一些错误解决方法,分享给大家一下。我的VPS配置:双核,1G内存,30G硬盘

以下内容转自张宴博客http://zyan.cc/nginx_php_v6/:

为什么Nginx的性能要比Apache高得多?这得益于Nginx使用了最新的epoll(Linux 2.6内核)和kqueue(freebsd)网络I/O模型,而Apache则使用的是传统的select模型。目前Linux下能够承受高并发访问的Squid、Memcached都采用的是epoll网络I/O模型。

处理大量的连接的读写,Apache所采用的select网络I/O模型非常低效。下面用一个比喻来解析Apache采用的select模型和Nginx采用的epoll模型进行之间的区别:

假设你在大学读书,住的宿舍楼有很多间房间,你的朋友要来找你。select版宿管大妈就会带着你的朋友挨个房间去找,直到找到你为止。而epoll版宿管大妈会先记下每位同学的房间号,你的朋友来时,只需告诉你的朋友你住在哪个房间即可,不用亲自带着你的朋友满大楼找人。如果来了10000个人,都要找自己住这栋楼的同学时,select版和epoll版宿管大妈,谁的效率更高,不言自明。同理,在高并发服务器中,轮询I/O是最耗时间的操作之一,select和epoll的性能谁的性能更高,同样十分明了。



安装步骤:
(系统要求:Linux 2.6+ 内核,本文中的Linux操作系统为CentOS 5.3,另在RedHat AS4上也安装成功)

一、获取相关开源程序:
1、【适用CentOS操作系统】利用CentOS Linux系统自带的yum命令安装、升级所需的程序库(RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包,进行安装):

sudo -s
LANG=C
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel openldap openldap-devel nss_ldap openldap-clients openldap-servers

2、【适用RedHat操作系统】RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包(事先可通过类似“rpm -qa | grep libjpeg”的命令查看所需的RPM包是否存在,通常是“xxx-devel”不存在,需要安装)。RedHat可以直接利用CentOS的RPM包安装,以下是RPM包下载网址:
①、RedHat AS4 & CentOS 4
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/i386/CentOS/RPMS/
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/x86_64/CentOS/RPMS/

②、RedHat AS5 & CentOS 5
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/i386/CentOS/
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/x86_64/CentOS/

③、RPM包搜索网站
http://rpm.pbone.net/
http://www.rpmfind.net/

④、RedHat AS4 系统环境,通常情况下缺少的支持包安装:
Ⅰ、i386 系统

Ⅱ、x86_64 系统

3、【适用CentOS、RedHat及其它Linux操作系统】下载程序源码包:
本文中提到的所有开源软件为截止到2010年07月26日的最新稳定版。
①、从软件的官方网站下载:

mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.14.tar.gz/from/this/mirror
wget http://php-fpm.org/downloads/php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz
wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.5/mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.he.net/
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
wget “http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0”
wget “http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0”
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget “http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0”
wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-8.10.tar.gz
wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.6.1/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.3.0.tgz

②、从blog.zyan.cc下载(比较稳定,只允许在本站,或者在Linux/Unix下通过Wget、Curl等命令下载以下软件):

mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/nginx/nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/php/php-5.2.14.tar.gz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/phpfpm/php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/mysql/mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/memcache/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/pcre/pcre-8.10.tar.gz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/eaccelerator/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/pdo/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/imagick-2.3.0.tgz



二、安装PHP 5.2.14(FastCGI模式)
1、编译安装PHP 5.2.14所需的支持库:

tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13.1/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../
tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz 
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure –enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../
tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1
ln -s /usr/local/bin/libmcrypt-config /usr/bin/libmcrypt-config
tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make
make install
cd ../



—————————-
Seay:下面的步骤会用到一些路径,如果不存在会导致编译不了,原文章没有说创建目录,现在我们需要创建一下几个目录

mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/mysql/
mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/
mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/nginx/

2、编译安装MySQL 5.5.3-m3

/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.5.3-m3/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ –enable-assembler –with-extra-charsets=complex –enable-thread-safe-client –with-big-tables –with-readline –with-ssl –with-embedded-server –enable-local-infile –with-plugins=partition,innobase,myisammrg
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
cd ../



附:以下为附加步骤,如果你想在这台服务器上运行MySQL数据库,则执行以下几步。如果你只是希望让PHP支持MySQL扩展库,能够连接其他服务器上的MySQL数据库,那么,以下两步无需执行。

①、创建MySQL数据库存放目录

mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/data/
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/
mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/
chown -R mysql:mysql /data0/mysql/

②、以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表:

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db –basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql –datadir=/data0/mysql/3306/data –user=mysql

③、创建my.cnf配置文件:

vi /data0/mysql/3306/my.cnf

输入以下内容:

引用
[client]
character-set-server = utf8
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
[mysqld]
character-set-server = utf8
replicate-ignore-db = mysql
replicate-ignore-db = test
replicate-ignore-db = information_schema
user    = mysql
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir = /data0/mysql/3306/data
log-error = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql_error.log
pid-file = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql.pid
open_files_limit    = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 5000
max_connect_errors = 6000
table_cache = 614
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 1M
join_buffer_size = 1M
thread_cache_size = 300
#thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 512M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 246M
max_heap_table_size = 246M
long_query_time = 3
log-slave-updates
log-bin = /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 1G
relay-log-index = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
relay-log-info-file = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
relay-log = /data0/mysql/3306/relaylog/relaylog
expire_logs_days = 30
key_buffer_size = 256M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover
interactive_timeout = 120
wait_timeout = 120
skip-name-resolve
#master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396
#master-host     =   192.168.1.2
#master-user     =   username
#master-password =   password
#master-port     =  3306
server-id = 1
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 512M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:256M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 4
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0
#log-slow-queries = /data0/mysql/3306/slow.log
#long_query_time = 10
[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M

Seay:由于我是小VPS,所以上面的配置在我的VPS上面是不可用的,根据情况修改如下:

[client]
character-set-server = utf8
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
character-set-server = utf8
replicate-ignore-db = mysql
replicate-ignore-db = test
replicate-ignore-db = information_schema
user    = mysql
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir = /data0/mysqldata
log-error = /data0/log
pid-file = /data0/mysql/3306/mysql.pid
open_files_limit    = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 500
max_connect_errors = 600
table_cache = 680
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 1M
join_buffer_size = 1M
thread_cache_size = 60
#thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 128M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 64M
max_heap_table_size = 64M
long_query_time = 3
log-slave-updates
log-bin = /data0/mysql/3306/binlog/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 1G
relay-log-index = /data0/log/relaylog
relay-log-info-file = /data0/log/relaylog
relay-log = /data0/log/relaylog
expire_logs_days = 30
key_buffer_size = 128M
read_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 12M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 32M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 32M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover

interactive_timeout = 120
wait_timeout = 120

skip-name-resolve
#master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396

#master-host     =   192.168.1.2
#master-user     =   username
#master-password =   password
#master-port     =  3306

server-id = 1

innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 3M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 64M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:256M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 2
innodb_thread_concurrency = 2
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 8M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0

#log-slow-queries = /data0/mysql/3306/slow.log
#long_query_time = 10

[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M

④、创建管理MySQL数据库的shell脚本:

vi /data0/mysql/3306/mysql

输入以下内容(这里的用户名admin和密码12345678接下来的步骤会创建):

#!/bin/sh
mysql_port=3306
mysql_username=”admin”
mysql_password=”12345678″
function_start_mysql()
{
    printf “Starting MySQL…\n”
    /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe –defaults-file=/data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
}
function_stop_mysql()
{
    printf “Stoping MySQL…\n”
    /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown
}
function_restart_mysql()
{
    printf “Restarting MySQL…\n”
    function_stop_mysql
    sleep 5
    function_start_mysql
}
function_kill_mysql()
{
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep ‘bin/mysqld_safe’ | grep ${mysql_port} | awk ‘{printf $2}’)
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep ‘libexec/mysqld’ | grep ${mysql_port} | awk ‘{printf $2}’)
}
if [ “$1” = “start” ]; then
    function_start_mysql
elif [ “$1” = “stop” ]; then
    function_stop_mysql
elif [ “$1” = “restart” ]; then
function_restart_mysql
elif [ “$1” = “kill” ]; then
function_kill_mysql
else
    printf “Usage: /data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/mysql {start|stop|restart|kill}\n”
fi

⑤、赋予shell脚本可执行权限:

chmod +x /data0/mysql/3306/mysql

⑥、启动MySQL:

/data0/mysql/3306/mysql start

⑦、通过命令行登录管理MySQL服务器(提示输入密码时直接回车):

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock

⑧、输入以下SQL语句,创建一个具有root权限的用户(admin)和密码(12345678):

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ‘admin’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘12345678’;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ‘admin’@’127.0.0.1’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘12345678’;

⑨、(可选)停止MySQL:

/data0/mysql/3306/mysql stop


Seay:如果你的机器没有patch,那现在就需要安装一下,centos下 yum install patch 

3、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式)

tar zxvf php-5.2.14.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.14 -p1
cd php-5.2.14/
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php –with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc –with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql –with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config –with-iconv-dir=/usr/local –with-freetype-dir –with-jpeg-dir –with-png-dir –with-zlib –with-libxml-dir=/usr –enable-xml –disable-rpath –enable-discard-path –enable-safe-mode –enable-bcmath –enable-shmop –enable-sysvsem –enable-inline-optimization –with-curl –with-curlwrappers –enable-mbregex –enable-fastcgi –enable-fpm –enable-force-cgi-redirect –enable-mbstring –with-mcrypt –with-gd –enable-gd-native-ttf –with-openssl –with-mhash –enable-pcntl –enable-sockets –with-ldap –with-ldap-sasl –with-xmlrpc –enable-zip –enable-soap
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS=’-liconv’
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../

Seay:这里会报三个错误

configure: error: libjpeg.(a|so) not found

configure: error: libjpng.(a|so) not found
configure: error: Cannot find ldap libraries in /usr/lib

解决方法,执行:

cp -frp /usr/lib64/libpng* /usr/lib/
cp -frp /usr/lib64/libpng* /usr/lib/
cp -frp /usr/lib64/libldap* /usr/lib/



4、编译安装PHP5扩展模块

tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.5/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../
tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.6.1/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –enable-eaccelerator=shared –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../
tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config –with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql
make
make install
cd ../
tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../
tar zxvf imagick-2.3.0.tgz
cd imagick-2.3.0/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

Seay:上面这里也会报一个错,记得好像是少了一个什么库,由于这个文章是事后写的,我也记得不是很清楚,根据错误提示百度一下有很多篇关于解决这个问题的文章,我就不测试了。

5、修改php.ini文件
手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = “./”
修改为extension_dir = “/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/”
并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:
extension = “memcache.so”
extension = “pdo_mysql.so”
extension = “imagick.so”

再查找output_buffering = Off
修改为output_buffering = On

再查找; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0
修改为cgi.fix_pathinfo=0,防止Nginx文件类型错误解析漏洞。

自动修改:若嫌手工修改麻烦,可执行以下shell命令,自动完成对php.ini文件的修改:

sed -i ‘s#extension_dir = “./”#extension_dir = “/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/”\nextension = “memcache.so”\nextension = “pdo_mysql.so”\nextension = “imagick.so”\n#’ /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i ‘s#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#’ /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i “s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g” /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i “s#; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#g” /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP:

mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:

引用
[eaccelerator]
zend_extension=”/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so”
eaccelerator.shm_size=”64″
eaccelerator.cache_dir=”/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache”
eaccelerator.enable=”1″
eaccelerator.optimizer=”1″
eaccelerator.check_mtime=”1″
eaccelerator.debug=”0″
eaccelerator.filter=””
eaccelerator.shm_max=”0″
eaccelerator.shm_ttl=”3600″
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period=”3600″
eaccelerator.shm_only=”0″
eaccelerator.compress=”1″
eaccelerator.compress_level=”9″


7、创建www用户和组,以及供blog.zyan.cc和www.zyan.cc两个虚拟主机使用的目录:

/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www

Seay:根据自己情况创建目录

8、创建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是为PHP打的一个FastCGI管理补丁,可以平滑变更php.ini配置而无需重启php-cgi):
在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目录中创建php-fpm.conf文件:

rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

输入以下内容(如果您安装 Nginx + PHP 用于程序调试,请将以下的<value name=”display_errors”>0</value>改为<value name=”display_errors”>1</value>,以便显示PHP错误信息,否则,Nginx 会报状态为500的空白错误页):

<?xml version=”1.0″ ?>
<configuration>
  All relative paths in this config are relative to php’s install prefix
  <section name=”global_options”>
    Pid file
    <value name=”pid_file”>/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>
    Error log file
    <value name=”error_log”>/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>
    Log level
    <value name=”log_level”>notice</value>
    When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS …
    <value name=”emergency_restart_threshold”>10</value>
    … in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
    Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator’s shared memory.
    <value name=”emergency_restart_interval”>1m</value>
    Time limit on waiting child’s reaction on signals from master
    <value name=”process_control_timeout”>5s</value>
    Set to ‘no’ to debug fpm
    <value name=”daemonize”>yes</value>
  </section>
  <workers>
    <section name=”pool”>
      Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
      <value name=”name”>default</value>
      Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
      Valid syntax is ‘ip.ad.re.ss:port’ or just ‘port’ or ‘/path/to/unix/socket’
      <value name=”listen_address”>127.0.0.1:9000</value>
      <value name=”listen_options”>
        Set listen(2) backlog
        <value name=”backlog”>-1</value>
        Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
        In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
        Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
        <value name=”owner”></value>
        <value name=”group”></value>
        <value name=”mode”>0666</value>
      </value>
      Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
      <value name=”php_defines”>
        <value name=”sendmail_path”>/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
        <value name=”display_errors”>0</value>
      </value>
      Unix user of processes
      <value name=”user”>www</value>
      Unix group of processes
      <value name=”group”>www</value>
      Process manager settings
      <value name=”pm”>
        Sets style of controling worker process count.
        Valid values are ‘static’ and ‘apache-like’
        <value name=”style”>static</value>
        Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
        Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
        Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
        Used with any pm_style.
        <value name=”max_children”>128</value>
        Settings group for ‘apache-like’ pm style
        <value name=”apache_like”>
          Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
          Used only when ‘apache-like’ pm_style is selected
          <value name=”StartServers”>20</value>
          Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when ‘apache-like’ pm_style is selected
          <value name=”MinSpareServers”>5</value>
          Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when ‘apache-like’ pm_style is selected
          <value name=”MaxSpareServers”>35</value>
        </value>
      </value>
      The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
      Should be used when ‘max_execution_time’ ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
      ‘0s’ means ‘off’
      <value name=”request_terminate_timeout”>0s</value>
      The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
      ‘0s’ means ‘off’
      <value name=”request_slowlog_timeout”>0s</value>
      The log file for slow requests
      <value name=”slowlog”>logs/slow.log</value>
      Set open file desc rlimit
      <value name=”rlimit_files”>65535</value>
      Set max core size rlimit
      <value name=”rlimit_core”>0</value>
      Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name=”chroot”></value>
      Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name=”chdir”></value>
      Redirect workers’ stdout and stderr into main error log.
      If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
      <value name=”catch_workers_output”>yes</value>
      How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
      Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
      For endless request processing please specify 0
      Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
      <value name=”max_requests”>1024</value>
      Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
      Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
      Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
      <value name=”allowed_clients”>127.0.0.1</value>
      Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
      All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
      <value name=”environment”>
        <value name=”HOSTNAME”>$HOSTNAME</value>
        <value name=”PATH”>/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
        <value name=”TMP”>/tmp</value>
        <value name=”TMPDIR”>/tmp</value>
        <value name=”TEMP”>/tmp</value>
        <value name=”OSTYPE”>$OSTYPE</value>
        <value name=”MACHTYPE”>$MACHTYPE</value>
        <value name=”MALLOC_CHECK_”>2</value>
      </value>
    </section>
  </workers>
</configuration>



Seay:这里也需要根据我们的情况来配置,主要是配置pm、pm.max_children、pm.start_servers、pm.min_spare_servers、pm.max_spare_servers这几个参数,

pm:表示使用那种方式,有两个值可以选择,就是static(静态)或者dynamic(动态)。
在更老一些的版本中,dynamic被称作apache-like。这个要注意看配置文件的说明。


max_children:静态方式下开启的php-fpm进程数量
start_servers:动态方式下的起始php-fpm进程数量
min_spare_servers:动态方式下的最小php-fpm进程数
max_spare_servers:动态方式下的最大php-fpm进程数量


我修改后如下:

<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<configuration>

  All relative paths in this config are relative to php's install prefix

  <section name="global_options">

    Pid file
    <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>

    Error log file
    <value name="error_log">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>

    Log level
    <value name="log_level">notice</value>

    When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS ...
    <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>

    ... in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
    Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator's shared memory.
    <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>

    Time limit on waiting child's reaction on signals from master
    <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>

    Set to 'no' to debug fpm
    <value name="daemonize">yes</value>

  </section>

  <workers>

    <section name="pool">

      Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
      <value name="name">default</value>

      Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
      Valid syntax is 'ip.ad.re.ss:port' or just 'port' or '/path/to/unix/socket'
      <value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>

      <value name="listen_options">

        Set listen(2) backlog
        <value name="backlog">-1</value>

        Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
        In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
        Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
        <value name="owner"></value>
        <value name="group"></value>
        <value name="mode">0666</value>
      </value>

      Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
      <value name="php_defines">
        <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
        <value name="display_errors">0</value>
      </value>

      Unix user of processes
      <value name="user">www</value>

      Unix group of processes
      <value name="group">www</value>

      Process manager settings
      <value name="pm">

        Sets style of controling worker process count.
        Valid values are 'static' and 'apache-like'
        <value name="style">static</value>

        Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
        Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
        Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
        Used with any pm_style.
        <value name="max_children">20</value>

        Settings group for 'apache-like' pm style
        <value name="apache_like">

          Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="StartServers">5</value>

          Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MinSpareServers">2</value>

          Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MaxSpareServers">8</value>

        </value>

      </value>

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
      Should be used when 'max_execution_time' ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_terminate_timeout">0s</value>

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">0s</value>

      The log file for slow requests
      <value name="slowlog">logs/slow.log</value>

      Set open file desc rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_files">65535</value>

      Set max core size rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>

      Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chroot"></value>

      Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chdir"></value>

      Redirect workers' stdout and stderr into main error log.
      If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
      <value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>

      How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
      Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
      For endless request processing please specify 0
      Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
      <value name="max_requests">1024</value>

      Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
      Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
      Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
      <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>

      Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
      All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
      <value name="environment">
        <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
        <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
        <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
        <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
        <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
      </value>

    </section>

  </workers>

</configuration>




9、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为128(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启64个进程),用户为www:

ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start

注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload。



三、安装Nginx 0.8.46
1、安装Nginx所需的pcre库:

tar zxvf pcre-8.10.tar.gz
cd pcre-8.10/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../

2、安装Nginx

tar zxvf nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.8.46/
./configure –user=www –group=www –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx –with-http_stub_status_module –with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../

3、创建Nginx日志目录

mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs

4、创建Nginx配置文件
①、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:

rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

输入以下内容:

引用
user  www www;
worker_processes 8;
error_log  /data1/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;
pid        /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;
#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process. 
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;
events 
{
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 65535;
}
http 
{
  include       mime.types;
  default_type  application/octet-stream;
  #charset  gb2312;
      
  server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
  client_header_buffer_size 32k;
  large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
  client_max_body_size 8m;
      
  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush     on;
  keepalive_timeout 60;
  tcp_nodelay on;
  fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
  fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
  fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
  fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;
  gzip on;
  gzip_min_length  1k;
  gzip_buffers     4 16k;
  gzip_http_version 1.0;
  gzip_comp_level 2;
  gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
  gzip_vary on;
  #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;
  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  blog.zyan.cc;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/blog;
    #limit_conn   crawler  20;    
                             
    location ~ .*\.php$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }
    
    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
    {
      expires      30d;
    }
    location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
    {
      expires      1h;
    }    
    log_format  access  ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] “$request” ‘
              ‘$status $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘
              ‘”$http_user_agent” $http_x_forwarded_for’;
    access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
      }
  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  www.zyan.cc;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/www;
    location ~ .*\.php$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }
    log_format  wwwlogs  ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user [$time_local] “$request” ‘
               ‘$status $body_bytes_sent “$http_referer” ‘
               ‘”$http_user_agent” $http_x_forwarded_for’;
    access_log  /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log  wwwlogs;
  }
  server
  {
    listen  80;
    server_name  status.blog.zyan.cc;
    location / {
    stub_status on;
    access_log   off;
    }
  }
}

Seay:机器配置不好,日志也不是很重要的情况下,就不要开日志了,把上面的access_log注释掉,配置好自己的web域名和目录等信息

②、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:

vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf

输入以下内容:

引用
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;
fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;
# PHP only, required if PHP was built with –enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;

5、启动Nginx

ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx



四、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP

vi /etc/rc.local

在末尾增加以下内容:

引用
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx


Seay:再加一行mysql的 /data0/mysql/3306/mysql start

五、优化Linux内核参数

vi /etc/sysctl.conf

在末尾增加以下内容:

引用
# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog =  32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768
net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800
#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024  65535

使配置立即生效:

/sbin/sysctl -p



六、在不停止Nginx服务的情况下平滑变更Nginx配置
1、修改/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,请执行以下命令检查配置文件是否正确:

/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t

如果屏幕显示以下两行信息,说明配置文件正确:
the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully

2、平滑重启:
①、对于Nginx 0.8.x版本,现在平滑重启Nginx配置非常简单,执行以下命令即可:

/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload

②、对于Nginx 0.8.x之前的版本,平滑重启稍微麻烦一些,按照以下步骤进行即可。输入以下命令查看Nginx主进程号:

ps -ef | grep “nginx: master process” | grep -v “grep” | awk -F ‘ ‘ ‘{print $2}’

屏幕显示的即为Nginx主进程号,例如:
6302
这时,执行以下命令即可使修改过的Nginx配置文件生效:

kill -HUP 6302

或者无需这么麻烦,找到Nginx的Pid文件:

kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`



七、编写每天定时切割Nginx日志的脚本
1、创建脚本/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

输入以下内容:

引用
#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00
# The Nginx logs path
logs_path=”/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/”
mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d “yesterday” +”%Y”)/$(date -d “yesterday” +”%m”)/
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d “yesterday” +”%Y”)/$(date -d “yesterday” +”%m”)/access_$(date -d “yesterday” +”%Y%m%d”).log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`

2、设置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx访问日志

crontab -e

输入以下内容:

引用
00 00 * * * /bin/bash  /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh


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已经有4个筒子的人留下了脚印...

  • 非凡站长博客 说:
    1楼
    2014 年 7 月 29 日 上午 7:30 回复

    不错写得很细,一直用环境包 我还没有独立搭建过环境

  • Braid的灵魂 说:
    2楼
    2014 年 11 月 1 日 下午 9:33 回复

    lnmp 解决一切烦恼~

  • 冰锋刺客 说:
    3楼
    2015 年 5 月 10 日 下午 10:38 回复

    步骤好多啊

  • ... 说:
    4楼
    2015 年 12 月 1 日 下午 4:40 回复

    步骤需要精简…

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